Climate is the long-term state of atmospheric conditions, and Weather is the short term.
Both deal with specific times and places; sometimes even containing the scope of the entire Earth. The science disciplines for each are – Meteorology and Climatology, respectively. Forecasting the future of our Earth, rather daily or further, depends on these disciplines. Hierarchy wise, Meteorology(weather) and Climatology(climate) would fall under Atmospheric Sciences, which in turn would fall under Earth Science. Meteorologist and Climatologist both collect data; then – present, analysis, and interpret it. Topics included in these statistics: the temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover, precipitation, wind.
The Cryosphere includes all those areas of the Earth where the surface is frozen. Climatology research must include the cryosphere data in order to make proper predictions. Below are resources including this specific topic.
CliC: Cold frozen places. Find data, reports, and news.
National Snow & Ice Data Center: NSIDC. Research on: snow; ice; glaciers; and frozen ground.
Norwegian Polar Institute: Research into the connection of atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean. Expeditions, and fieldwork related to subject. They offer: images; publications(most being Open Access); datasets; and maps. The data interface is amazing!
The Cryosphere: An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union.
Equipment, Instruments, and Satellites
AMSR2 Data: This is placed on satellites. The past satellites that used this: JAXA’s ADEOS-II & NASA’s EOS Aqua spacecraft. It is currently on JAXA’s GCOM-W1. The ASMR instruments are dual-polarized, conical scanning, passive microwave radiometers. It has the ability to see through clouds, thereby providing an uninterrupted view of the ocean measurements.
Aqua Satellite: Collects information on: earth’s water cycle; evaporation from the oceans; water vapor in atmosphere; clouds; precipitation; soil moisture; sea ice; land ice; snow cover; and more! [Source]
Atmospheric Infrared Sounder(AIRS): One of six instruments on board the Aqua satellite. Observes global water cycles, energy cycles, climate variations, and climate trends.
[New]Monthly Weather Review: ‘Monthly Weather Review (MWR) publishes research relevant to the analysis and prediction of observed atmospheric circulations and physics, including technique development, data assimilation, model validation, and relevant case studies.'[Source].
[New]Weather and Forecasting: ‘Weather and Forecasting (WAF) publishes research that can lead to improvements in operational forecasting. This includes papers on significant weather events, forecasting techniques, forecast verification, model parameterizations, data assimilation, model ensembles, statistical postprocessing techniques, the transfer of research results to the forecasting community, and the societal use and value of forecasts.'[Source].
[New]Weather, Climate, and Society: ‘Weather, Climate, and Society (WCAS) publishes research that encompasses economics, policy analysis, political science, history, and institutional, social, and behavioral scholarship relating to weather and climate, including climate change.'[Source].
Atmospheric Science Data Center: Processes, archives, and distributes Earth Science data.
Check out Translations page 😀
Clivar: Long term atmospheric changes and predictions – in relation to the oceans.
Cordex: Orchestrates the collection of Global Climate Models(GCM). Data access section available; which they use to project future problems.
EarthExplorer: Search for aerial photos, elevation data and satellite products – by the USGS. The interface is pretty straight forward. The data is also available for download.
EarthNow: Display imagery of Landsat 7 and Landsat 8, in live(near real-time), or recorded, imagery.
Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Changes. Changes include: earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, landslides, etc. The site includes an interactive visual map display. Each incident has more information, so you can explore them deeper.
GCOS: Global Climate Observing System.
Gewex: The Global Energy and Water cycle Exchanges. Studies the earth’s water cycle and makes climatology predictions based on findings.
Government of Canada Environment and Natural Resources: Weather information. Air Quality.
GlobalChange.org: U.S. Global Change Research Program.
National Weather Service: Is it hot in here, or is it my lack of weather aware dressing? Check your forecasts people.
NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research.
NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
OOPC: Ocean Observations Panel for Climate.
Solas: The International Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Study Project.
SPARC: Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate.(Atmosphere).
Start: Research on Africa and Asia-Pacific climate/environmental changes.
The Australian Government’s Bureau of Meteorology: See trends both in Australia and Globally. Check out: Interactive Weather and Wave Forecast Map(Including Global); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center(Includes Satellite Images).
TOPC: Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate.
Western Regional Climate Center: For western States in the USA.
WCRP: World Climate Research Programme. Predicts and analyzes climate change. Evaluates how human activity affects the findings. Find out more information and help out.
Windyty: Wind map. Track clouds, waves, pressure, and wind related things.
World Meteorological Organization: Information, and online library, on atmospheric conditions.
Forecast: Winter is coming… or is it?
[French]Meteo France: Weather and Climate in France. Offers relevant news for locals and Open Data for all.
[New]The Weather Channel: Forecasts, maps, media, and news.
The Weather Network: The shows get me hyped. Luckily the site is more informative and less nerve wrecking.
Unisys Weather: Don’t *mist* this awesome resource.
Weather Spark: Weather graphs and maps. Offers hour to hour updates and weather reports.